BIO202: Human Anatomy and Physiology
Ty C.M. Hoffman


Functional Organization of the Endocrine System
Membrane-Bound Receptors, G Proteins, and Ca2+ Channels
Membrane-Bound Receptors that Activate G Proteins
Second Messenger: cAMP I
Second Messenger: cAMP II*
Hormonal Communication
Intracellular Receptor Model
Modes of Action of Hormones**
Hormonal Feedback Loops**
Hypothalamic Control of the Pituitary**
Digestive System
Hydrochloric Acid Production
Organs of Digestion
Reflexes in the Colon
Three Phases of Gastric Secretion
Mechanical and Chemical Digestion**
Reproductive System
Positive and Negative Feedback
Comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis
How Meiosis Works
Random Orientation of Chromosomes During Meiosis
Spermatogenesis I
Spermatogenesis II**
Comparison of Sperm and Egg Development**
Maturation of the Follicle and Oocyte
Hormones and the Menstrual Cycle*
The Menstrual Cycle**
Endocrine Glands
Mechanism of Steroid Hormone Action
Blood Sugar Regulation in Diabetics
Cardiovascular System: Blood
Hemoglobin Breakdown
Hemolysis and Crenation
Blood Types and Antibodies
Blood Types and Surface Glycoproteins**
Cardiovascular System: The Heart
The Heart**
Conducting System of the Heart
The Cardiac Cycle I
The Cardiac Cycle II**
Cardiovascular System: Peripheral Circulation and Regulation
Cadiovascular System Overview**
Baroreceptor Reflex Control of Blood Pressure
Chemoreceptor Reflex Control of Blood Pressure
Fluid Exchange Across the Walls of Capillaries
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve*
Hemoglobin as an Oxygen Repository*
Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood*
Arteries as a Pressure Reservoir*
Respiratory System
Gas Exchange During Respiration
Gas Exchange**
Anatomy of the Lung and Alveoli**
Alveolar Pressure Changes During Inspiration and Expiration
Changes in the Partial Pressures of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Movement of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Gas Exchange Driven by Partial Pressure Gradients*
Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues**
Urinary System
Urinary System Anatomy**
Micturition Reflex
Nephron Function**

Additional animations can be found on the website for Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology.

* Denotes links to animations from Fundamentals of Physiology: A Human Perspective (by Lauralee Sherwood; Brooks Cole, publisher).
** Denotes links to animations from Biology of Humans (by Goodenaugh, McGuire, and Wallace; Prentice Hall, publisher).